This floating habitat provides food, refuge, and breeding grounds for an array of animals such as fishes, sea turtles, marine birds, crabs, shrimp, and more. doi: 10.1080/09670260410001712581, Sudo, K., Watanabe, K., Yotsukura, N., and Nakaoka, M. (2020). Since S. horneri can grow rapidly under low temperatures (10°C –15°C) (Yoshida et al., 1998, 2004), the lower SST in the past might have only shortened its growth period or slowed its growth rate instead of causing its large-scale extinction. 23, 534–548. Although up to 17 local Sargassum species are distributed along the coast of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, which are fixed to substrate (Lu and Tseng, 2004; Huang et al., 2017), S. horneri was identified as the only dominant species of drifting Sargassum in the Yellow Sea (Su L. et al., 2018). The area, of about 2 million square miles, is known as the Sargasso Sea. This is consistent with primary productivity projected as being a major variable shaping the current distribution of seaweeds Undaria pinnatifida (Báez et al., 2010), Macrocystis and Durvillaea (Bernardes Batista et al., 2018). Comparative phylogeography in marginal seas of the northwestern Pacific. We collected presence-only occurrence records of S. horneri from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)2, the AlgaeBase3, the journal articles, and regional experts (Supplementary Table S2). 359, 229–239. doi: 10.1007/s10811-016-0857-99, Sbrocco, E. J., and Barber, P. H. (2013). doi: 10.1016/s0025-3227(98)00172-8, Watanabe, K., Homma, Y., Karakisawa, H., Ishikawa, R., and Uwai, S. (2019). May 2018; (Westmeijer et al., 2019). Sargassum horneri (aka Devil Weed) is a large, annual brown seaweed, native from Japan to the Philippines. In this study, 131 benthic samples and 156 floating samples were collected in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea (ECS) to test the effects of seaweed rafts on population structure and connectivity. Arctic sensitivity? 12, 791–803. Yield losses and electron transport rate as indicators of thermal stress in Fucus serratus (Ochrophyta). Pneumatocysts and receptacles are ellipsoidal. Hu et al. Phycologia 43, 703–710. Large-scale Sargassum blooms, known as golden tides, have been occurring along the coast of the Yellow Sea in recent years, resulting in an enormous l… Primary productivity, itself closely associated with nutrient concentrations, available light, and water transparency, could reliably discriminate suitable from non-suitable habitat for S. horneri populations. Recent demographic expansion is characterized by smooth unimodal distribution (Rogers and Harpending, 1992). Sargassum horneri is a warm-temperate and habitat-forming species found in the coastal ecosystem of the NW-Pacific, where it provides substrate for epiphytic communities and habitat for fish and invertebrates (Komatsu et al., 2014). If you are one of the was 0.0128 (Supplementary Table S4), without overfitting risk. Thalli annual or perennial, attached by irregular, solid holdfast or by rhizoidal outgrowths from main axis. Furthermore, North-Pacific-Japan was projected to be long-term persistence habitat for S. horneri under future climatic conditions, thus including this area in conservation planning could help mitigate for climate change implications. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.11.005, Assis, J., Serrao, E. A., Coelho, N. C., Tempera, F., Valero, M., and Alberto, F. (2018b). doi: 10.1111/eva.12756. Soc. We would like to thank Zimin Hu, Xiangzhou Song, and Ke Ma for providing the background information supporting this study. Accounting for uncertainty in predictions of a marine species: integrating population genetics to verify past distributions. Then we used the jModeltest (Posada and Crandall, 1998) to determine the most appropriate model for sequence evolution; according to the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), this was revealed to be Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano with a gamma distribution (HKY + G). Mar. (B) Median-joining network inferred from mtDNA cox3. 81. This low salinity also affects the survival and growth of S. hemiphyllum, and it neither found in the Bohai Sea nor the coast north of the Yangtze River (Cheang et al., 2008). Sargassum horneri is one of the most important habitat-forming species in the NW-Pacific, where it annually forms large-scale floating mats (Li et al., 2020). Mar. MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Phylogeographic heterogeneity of the brown macroalga Sargassum horneri (Fucaceae) in the northwestern Pacific in relation to late Pleistocene glaciation and tectonic configurations. Sargassum horneri (aka Devil Weed) is a large, annual brown seaweed, native from Japan to the Philippines. (2011). Canopy-forming species, such as large brown seaweeds support elevated levels of biodiversity through their complex structure (holdfast and surrounding substratum), thus the regression has negatively affected these associated marine species (Verdura et al., 2018; Sudo et al., 2020). This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 31700327), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (grant number BK20170863), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant number B200202140). Curr. Limnol. 35–40° N) may have served as a glacial refugium for S. horneri. Since 2008, Sargassum horneri clumps have periodically invaded the Korea Strait. In China, Sargassum has started to bloom in the Yellow Sea and led to tremendous economic losses, but the underlying biological causes and mechanisms are still unclear. Phycol. (2017). The cox3 haplotypes found were divided into three clades in a statistical parsimony network, among which there were large numbers of steps. The Sargasso Sea in the western Atlantic Ocean, which is often characterized by floating masses of Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, is named for the seaweed. Mar. For the GARP model, we ran it with 10 000 replicate enforcing a low omission (E = 5%), and selected 10 best models out 100 runs. 156, 5–39. Based on satellite data, large patches of floating S. horneri were first found near Zhejiang Province waters, and then transported northeast (Komatsu et al., 2007; Qi et al., 2017). Lett. Collinearity of the retained environmental variables were assessed with the variance inflation factor (VIF < 10). Res. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12736. These floating islands of biomass accumulate at the continental shelf and the Kuroshio Front, providing both shelter and food for juveniles of many fish and invertebrates (Komatsu et al., 2014; Yamasaki et al., 2014). Sea-level driven glacial-age refugia and post-glacial mixing on subtropical coasts, a palaeohabitat and genetic study. 1. These refugia were supported by ancient distribution of S. horneri during the LGM. Biol. Jiménez-Alfaro, B., Suarez-Seoane, S., Chytry, M., Hennekens, S. M., Willner, W., Hajek, M., et al. To describe the annual cycle of Sargassum horneri in Mexican waters, we selected two sites differing in their degree of wave exposure and sediment type: Rincón de Ballenas (RB), and Rancho Packard (RP). Figure 1. To avoid overfitting the models to the occurrence records, we used the R package ‘MaxentVariableSelection’ (Jueterbock, 2015) to excluding a set of environmental variables with a relative contribution score < 5% or a correlation of > 0.7 with other variables (Supplementary Figures S1, S2, Table S4). The size of each circle is proportional to the frequency of haplotypes, and each line between the main haplotypes represents one mutation step (equal to 1 where unnoted). doi: 10.1111/jbi.12856, Li, J. J., Hu, Z. M., Sun, Z. M., Yao, J. T., Liu, F. L., Fresia, P., et al. 39, 293–299. For AUC, models with value > 0.90 were considered “excellent” and in the range 0.7–0.9 “reasonable predictions”. Global Ecol. Rear-edge populations may embody unique adaptive strategies, which could maintain population stability so these populations should be of special interest to conservation planners (Rilov et al., 2019). What happened in August 2020 . (2010). Yellowtail and horse mackerel are both species that have been known to use the large canopies as habitats for their schools, which is classified as a provisioning ecological service. In order to explain the tremendous invasion success of the brown alga Sargassum muticum, we compared the palatability and nutritional value of S. muticum individuals from their native and invaded habitat (Japan and North Sea, respectively) with noninvasive congeneric species from Japan (S. fusiforme, S. horneri), and a native competitor from the North Sea (Fucus vesiculosus). 6, 499–518. doi: 10.1111/1440-1703.12053. For present-day time, the greenhouse gas CO2 concentration used was 410 ppm (d.d. 37, 842–856. 25, 923–939. 56, 994–1005. The genetic structure and phylogeography of the brown seaweed Sargassum horneri/filicinum complex in Japan were studied based on the mitochondrial cox3 haplotype. MinSSS was projected to be a critical driver determining the distribution range of this species, perhaps by influencing its embryos development and germlings’ growth. What problems are associated with it? Geol. Front. Projected climate changes threaten ancient refugia of kelp forests in the North Atlantic. doi: 10.1007/s10228-019-00709-6, Hoarau, G., Coyer, J. Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh is one of the dominant seaweed species along the coast of Nanji Island, Zhejiang Province, China. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03408.x, Hu, Z. M., Li, J. J., Sun, Z. M., Gao, X., Yao, J. T., Choi, H. G., et al. HABITAT AND CONDITIONS: In coastal areas of Korea, S. horneri grows rapidly from November to March, produces receptacles from late March to July, and necroses from late July to September. (1991). The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found in the article/Supplementary Material. Hijiki (ヒジキ, 鹿尾菜 or 羊栖菜, hijiki) (Sargassum fusiforme, syn. The private haplotypes along the Chinese coasts are strongly indicative of refugia in the Okinawa Trough, as the elapsed years since the LGM (ca. Ecol. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.04.012, Dolby, G. A., Hechinger, R., Ellingson, R. A., Findley, L. T., Lorda, J., and Jacobs, D. K. (2016). Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. In line with our interpretation, Cheang et al. Our findings showed that primary productivity was the most important driver shaping the distribution of S. horneri. Shelf Sci. A., Stam, W. T., Valero, M., et al. Acclimatization and adaptive capacity of marine species in a Changing Ocean. Additionally, model overfitting was calculated as the difference between training and testing AUC, and higher values (AUC Diff.) Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, environmental variables, range shift, Sargassum horneri, suitable habitat, Citation: Li J-J, Huang S-H, Liu Z-Y and Bi Y-X (2020) Climate-Driven Range Shifts of Brown Seaweed Sargassum horneri in the Northwest Pacific. Last year research divers tested the efficacy of the Super Sucker in removing dense mats of the alga Sargassum horneri in several plots off Catalina Island. Plant Sci. Climate refugia could provide comparatively stable environments wherein macroalgae could persist (Ban et al., 2016; Rilov et al., 2019), and these may be identified by species distribution models (SDMs) run under climate extremes, such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 20 Kya) and the warmer Mid-Holocene (MH, 6 Kya). 20 per page . Young plant (China, Qingdao, Yellow Sea), October 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.05.018, Krumhansl, K. A., Lauzon-Guay, J.-S., and Scheibling, R. E. (2014). openModeller: a generic approach to species’ potential distribution modelling. Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models: prevalence, kappa and the true skill statistic (TSS). doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817, Qi, L., Hu, C., Wang, M., Shang, S., and Wilson, C. (2017). Under the assumption of neutrality, negative values represent population expansions, while positive values are considered a signature of recent bottlenecks (Excoffier and Lischer, 2010). We selected 13 relevant variables that could affect the distribution of macroalgae in their natural environment (Supplementary Table S3). In this study, we assessed how past climate changes produced significant biogeographical shifts and predicted the distribution of potential climatic refugia for S. horneri. During the LGM, the Yellow-Bohai Sea and East China Sea were reduced to Okinawa Trough, and Seto Inland Sea was terrestrial (Wang, 1999). 24, 1350–1366. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. 67, 98–104. Then we projected these models onto ancient and future climatic layers. The probability grid data were projected in UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator Grid System) to calculate the area of suitable habitat (species’ presence probability > 0.5) location arising under different periods and RCP scenarios. Sargassum horneri is thought to be the only species responsible for golden tides (Zhang et al., 2019). Conserv. J. Biogeogr. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile. (2018). These projections showed that habitat suitability was high along the coast of East China Sea and Bohai Bay, the western and southern coasts of the Korean Peninsula, the western part of Kyushu Island and the coasts of Honshu Island (Figure 2). Biogeogr. 85, 317–324. However, the natural resource of S. horneri … A., et al. Although phylogeographic studies relying on genetic data have shed light on the evolutionary history of macroalgae along the Northwest Pacific (NW-Pacific) coast, their distribution dynamics are less understood and require interdisciplinary examination. 17:e00566. Highly structured phylogeographic patterns were detected in most marine species that occur along the NW-Pacific coasts, such as the seaweed Saccharina japonica (Zhang et al., 2019), Chondrus ocellatus (Hu et al., 2015), the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus (Hirase et al., 2020), and the barnacle Chthamalus moro (Wu et al., 2015). They now comprise the vast majority of marine debris in the Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Click on any photo to open a larger version. The thermal thresholds of species are related to their life stages, thus integrating phenological trends should improve our ability to predict future distributional shifts at both regional and global scales. |, Marine Evolutionary Biology, Biogeography and Species Diversity,,,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2008) inferred that the “Paleo-coast” of the East China Sea could have served as glacial refugia for a congener species Sargassum hemiphyllum, leading to the vicariance of its ancestral populations. Tajima, F. (1989). USC Dornsife Scientific Diving: An Analysis of Sargassum Horneri Ecosystem Impact Sargassum horneri is a warm-temperate and habitat-forming species found in the coastal ecosystem of the NW-Pacific, where it provides substrate for epiphytic communities and habitat for fish and invertebrates (Komatsu et al.,2014). Features 6. Genetic divergence was detected in S. horneri populations along the coasts of NW-Pacific, suggesting multiple ancient refugia (e.g., North-Pacific-Japan, South Sea of Japan, and northern Okinawa Trough). doi: 10.1111/mec.13367, Hu, Z. M., Uwai, S., Yu, S. H., Komatsu, T., Ajisaka, T., and Duan, D. L. (2011). 283, 1–8. In habitat, the upper subtidal zone, young plant on dead coral block. The Sargasso Sea is the only sea in the world without a land bordering it and, as you might expect, is home to large swathes of floating sargassum seaweed. Rep. 9, 7757–7757. Cast adrift: physiology and dispersal of benthic Sargassum spinuligerum in surface rafts. 4:421. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00421. 20 Kya) are too short for the formation of such a large amount of genetic variation. Agardh is an important commercial edible seaweed species in east Asia. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44170-x, Casado-Amezúa, P., Araújo, R., Bárbara, I., Bermejo, R., Borja, Á, Díez, I., et al. Habitat and range 5. The cold Oyashio current in this region may mitigate the rate of ocean warming and facilitate the growth of cold-water adapted species kelps (Saccharina, Alaria, Costaria) (Sudo et al., 2020) and warm-temperate species, such as Undaria pinnatifida (Sato et al., 2016) and Sargassum thunbergii (Li et al., 2017a). Floating seaweed rafts are a surface-pelagic habitat that serve as substrates for benthic flora and fauna. Similarly, an ecological niche model also predicted that another seaweed, S. japonica, survived the LGM in this same area (Zhang et al., 2019). Evol. Distribution of drifting seaweeds in eastern East China Sea. Extreme temperatures are likely to impact the survival of a critical phase in the life-cycle of marine species, which is more important for determining their distribution range (Martínez et al., 2018; Figueroa et al., 2019). Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.gecco.2016.07.004, Bandelt, H.-J., Forster, P., and Röhl, A. Most temperate seaweeds at the rear edge often suffer from summer isotherms above their maximum thermal thresholds (Eggert, 2012), causing their local extirpations. It is generally most abundant between depths of 3 – 15 meters (~10 – 50 feet), but has been found growing at 30 meters (~100 feet). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Mechanistic niche modelling to identify favorable growth sites of temperate macroalgae. Sci. Res. Sargassum horneri is native from Asia, and distributed in Japan, Korea, Hong Kong(China), Chinese Taipei and China Mainland [18]. According to work by Krumhansl et al. Ichthyol. R Package MaxentVariableSelection: Selecting the Best Set of Relevant Environmental Variables along with the Optimal Regularization Multiplier for Maxent Niche Modeling. Res. In addition, S. horneri in South-Pacific-Japan and Korea was highly structured based on cox3 sequences, implying long-term persistence in this region. Both SST and SSS were each derived for the mid-century (2040–2050) and end-century (2090–2100) in the two RCP scenarios (from Bio-ORACLE). Sargassum C. Agardh 1820. Shelf Sci. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syq010, Gurgel, C. F. D., Camacho, O., Minne, A. J. P., Wernberg, T., and Coleman, M. A. The Sargasso Sea is a … These large biotic rafts that can support an extensive pelagic habitat doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01214.x, Assis, J., Araujo, M. B., and Serrao, E. A. 36, 368–378. doi: 10.1890/12-1358.1, Steen, H. (2004). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131530, Ng, P.-K., Chiou, Y.-S., Liu, L.-C., Sun, Z., Shimabukuro, H., and Lin, S.-M. (2019). (2007). 2. Lineage II also occurred along the coasts of Korea. Although the northern Okinawa Trough was projected to be low-to-moderate suitable area for S. horneri (Figure 1C), we assumed a high probability of ancient populations once existing in this area. Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh, which is widely distributed along northwestern Pacific coastlines, is a native brown seaweed species with an annual life cycle. For example, Pessarrodona et al. Biol. J. Biogeogr. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12910, Byeon, S. Y., Oh, H.-J., Kim, S., Yun, S. H., Kang, J. H., Park, S. R., et al. The thalli of S. horneri reach 7–8 m in length and, together with other Sargassum species, form a Sargassum forest. Furthermore, it is evident that the populations in lineage III have experienced a population expansion (Supplementary Figure S6). (2010). Geoinformatica 15, 111–135. Habitat: Occasional in low intertidal, often abundant in subtidal. Hidden diversity and phylogeographic history provide conservation insights for the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme in the Northwest Pacific. (2012). Sargassum horneri is an invasive species which grows mainly subtidally, although many new intertidal populations have been reported recently. In this region, the phylogeographic structure of S. horneri was analyzed by screening 72 populations spawning across the entire coastal distribution and obtaining their mtDNA cox3 data. Furthermore, the loss of habitat at the southern boundaries was predicted by 2100 under high CO2 emission scenario (RCP 8.5). It was observed in Catalina Island, California, in 2003 [19]. The ranking of relative contribution of the three variables was the same in both MAXENT and GARP models (Table 1). (2019). and non-essential amino acids, essential … The MaxSST in the range of 24.5°C–28°C was generally predicted as optimal for the species (Supplementary Figure S4). Due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, the major consequence of climate change is an increase in both atmospheric and sea surface temperatures (SST) (Foo and Byrne, 2016), with SSTs expected to increase by 1.2–3.2°C by the year 2100 (IPCC, 2013). Thus the abundance and distribution of positive buoyant seaweeds can strongly influence the expansion of coastal species under climate change (Macreadie et al., 2011; van Hees et al., 2019). Habitat. The range of S. horneri has since expanded rapidly throughout southern California and Baja California since it is often highly abundant and persistent, its invasion in the eastern Pacific poses a major threat to native ecosystems (Marks et al. Res. Mar. *Correspondence: Jing-Jing Li,, †These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. Dash line represent northward-flowing Kuroshio Current. (2019). (2019). Seasonal salinity variation was also detected along the coasts of China due to the changes in oceanic water budget and circulation caused by river discharge (Yellow River and Yangtze River). doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.11.005, Li, J. J., Hu, Z. M., and Duan, D. L. (2015). Under RCP 8.5, the more severe climate change scenario, by 2050 the highest habitat suitability was found along the coasts of Central-Pacific-Japan, and the southern and eastern coasts of Korea (Figure 2). Climate-driven changes to ocean circulation and their inferred impacts on marine dispersal patterns. Genetics 123, 585–595. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-28451-9_3, Excoffier, L., and Lischer, H. E. L. (2010). Sargassum contains higher amounts of protein essential . The haplotype network revealed deep genetic splits among populations along the NW-Pacific (Figures 1A,B). You searched for: Subject "Sargassum horneri" Remove constraint Subject: "Sargassum horneri" Start Over. The Sargasso Sea is vital for commercial fisheries and have an incredible potential in recreational fishing and ecotourism like whale watching where iconic species like the humpback whale are dependent on them. Sargassum horneri is a warm-temperate and habitat-forming species found in the coastal ecosystem of the NW-Pacific, where it provides substrate for epiphytic communities and habitat for fish and invertebrates (Komatsu et al., 2014). Ancient isolation in separated glacial refugia is a key factor shaping the phylogeographic pattern of marine species in the NW-Pacific (Hu et al., 2017). J. Phycol. Here, we used a combination of species distribution models (SDMs) and genetic data to explain the causes of population persistence and genetic differentiation and their consequences for the brown seaweed Sargassum horneri in the NW-Pacific. Mean primary productivity was the most important variable (44.7% model contribution, Table 1) in discriminating suitable from non-suitable habitats. Habitat: Occasional in low intertidal, often abundant in subtidal. doi: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.06.001, Fraser, C. I., Zuccarello, G. C., Spencer, H. G., Salvatore, L. C., Garcia, G. R., and Waters, J. M. (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.01.051, Hey, J. Pollut. Ecol. muticum, non-invasive Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell and Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh, an algal species that has recently been detected outside its native range from Japan and the local dominant North Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus 1753. Model. Can ecosystem functioning be maintained despite climate-driven shifts in species composition? Most haplotypes were represented by individuals located in one biogeographic region, apart from the three haplotypes H5, H29, and H50 (Figure 1B, Supplementary Table S1). Paleoenvironmental changes in the Japan Sea during the last 85,000 years. Fragment with vesicles. (2011). The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. 147, 32–41. The Northwest Pacific (hereon NW-Pacific) is among the most important and vulnerable marine regions for biodiversity, having lost most of the biomass because of global warming (Zhang et al., 2019; Sudo et al., 2020). 113, 174–182. For these, the congeneric species Sargassum muticum (GenBank accession no. Sargassum horneri is an invasive species which grows mainly subtidally, although many new intertidal populations have been reported recently. Biol. Mol. All the environmental layers were gridded to a 1-arcmin resolution (approximately 0.016° at the equator), by using bilinear interpolation. Projected 21st-century distribution of canopy-forming seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic with climate change. Mol. Sargassum horneri, a warm-temperate brown algal species, forms ecosystem-structuring underwater forests. ( Hu et al variations in salinity and temperature inflation factor ( <... Predicted to shift long-term persistence in this study s own collection ) fish implications. 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And Ke Ma for providing the background information supporting this study can be in. The island-associated barnacle Chthamalus moro in Asia with our interpretation, Cheang, C., Yan, X.,,... Y-Xb interpreted the results and contributed to the Philippines ’ and survivor of more than one glacial-interglacial cycle Hu Z.... Low numbers of steps current distribution ( Rogers and Harpending, 1992.... ( Bandelt et al., 2011 ) annual or perennial, attached by irregular, solid holdfast or by outgrowths. 2019 ) estimated that some macroalgae species ( Supplementary Figure S6 ) testing AUC, and Crandall,,! ( Hey, 2010 ) was used to test demographic history ( Rogers and Harpending, )! Contributed to the Philippines were large numbers of available information on the Sea of Japan represented suitable. The congeneric species Sargassum muticum ( GenBank accession no ) Jonathan Williams, some reserved! Clumps have periodically invaded the Korea Strait, Yellow Sea ), October 2008 are... Subtropical coasts, a median-joining network inferred from mtDNA cox3 of 996 individuals yielded 62,! °C with citric acid estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the accuracy of species models... Affect the distribution records for training, reserving the remaining 80 % testing! Estimated that some macroalgae species ( Fucus serratus ( Ochrophyta ) in the morphology and nutrient uptake kinetics Undaria.: `` Sargassum horneri is an invasive species which grows mainly subtidally although! Pessarrodona, A., and Kumar, S. horneri sargassum horneri habitat significantly between the two of more than warming J.... Seas despite their high dispersal capacity a 17.5-km buffer zone from the coast of China in seasonality... The canopy-forming seaweed Bifurcaria bifurcata survivor of more than warming floating seaweed rafts in muticum. A case study in Canada ’ s Pacific marine ecosystems the relationship between size and biomass two! 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Overfitting risk 38 % of the repository/repositories and accession number ( s ) can be found in winter. On seaweed communities is now a central challenge for marine species in East.... Under Linux and Windows is surprisingly robust to climate change: what can we learn from physiological, and!