(col.); 146 ref. London, UK: Oxford University Press, Troup RS, Joshi HB, 1981. USDA Forest Service Research Note, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Hist. This species produces the Red Cedar timber of commerce. 112-115. Embryo about 5 mm long. Coun. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, Styles BT, Khosla PK, 1976. Forest Service, U.S. Dept. Vanasarn, 32(3):225-227; 1 ref, Troup RS, 1921. Toona hexandra M.Roem. Effect of elevation and temperature on seed germination of some Himalayan tree species. 2, 2 pp, Applegate GB, Bragg AL, 1989. [2][3] It is commonly known as the red cedar (a name shared by other trees), toon or toona (also applied to other members of the genus Toona), Australian red cedar,[4] Burma cedar, Indian cedar, Moulmein cedar or the Queensland red cedar. Flora of Zimbabwe. With a large buttressed base, the stem diameter can be as large as 2 metres. There is a moth that attcks the Red Cedar's new growth- which forses the tree to fork. Genus Toona is a small genus of 4 to 5 species of trees, originating from China, SE Asia and N Australia . The fruit and leaves of Toona sinensis are edible, and are often used in teas. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae. Nat. http://www.gbif.org/species, Greenhill WL, Dadswell HE, 1940. No. Other common names Chinese cedar 'Flamingo' . Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. ; 24 pl. Australian Forestry, 52(4):293-297; 15 ref, Arushi Mehrotra, Mehrotra MD, 2000. Planting trials with Red Cedar. sci. Bleaching properties of six hardwood species of Bangladesh. Cedrela in the Malay Peninsula. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Aust. Delhi, India: India Press. Indian Journal of Forestry, 16(2):167-169; 7 ref, Negi SS, 1977. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2011), http://www.pngplants.org/PNGtrees/TreeDescriptions/Toona_ciliata_M_Roem.html, http://www.invasives.org.za/component/?k2/item/324-toon-tree|toona-ciliata.html, http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/trees/CommonTreesHI/CFT_Toona_?ciliata.pdf, Pandey KN, Mandhu Mohan, Gupta RC, 1986. In Australia, it occurs from sea level to 1100 m, in areas with an annual rainfall of 1200–3800 mm, concentrated in the summer (Boland et al., 2006). Running cattle under trees: an experiment in agroforestry. Austr. Cedrela toona. Care and Cultivation of Toona ciliata. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 5(1-2):126-129, Anon, 1963. The cedar tip moth lays its eggs on the tree's leading shoot, allowing the larvae to burrow into the stem. In parts of Zimbabwe and South Africa, it has naturalised; growing to maturity and spreading from seed. It has been extensively tested in Hawaii and Central/South America (Argentina and Costa Rica), Sri Lanka and Africa (Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania). ], Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 16(1):26-35; 28 ref, Bhattacharyya A, Yadav RR, Borgaonkar HP, Pant GB, 1992. T. ciliata bears a resemblance to Cedrela odorata, to which it is closely related, and the two are sometimes confounded with each other; C. odorata has a longer floral column than T. ciliata, and its seedlings have entire leaflets (Lemmens, 2008). It was introduced in 1918 for forestry plantations, using stock from Australia (Little and Skolmen, 1989). T. ciliata spreads by seed dispersal (Invasive Species South Africa, 2012). Gardens Bull. Growth and photosynthetic response to light and nutrients of Flindersia brayleyana F. Phythophthora leaf blight of some forest trees. Experiment No 1, Investigation of physical properties and quality of sawn timber in plantation grown red cedar. Sow Toona ciliata seeds just under the surface of a well drained and rich potting mix, the seeds just want to be weighted down so they don’t float off when watered (seriously, you don’t want to bury them too deep!). http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm, Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. of ref, Chand G, Bhardwaj SD, 1996. Effects of Phytophthora cinnamomi on some endemic and exotic plant species in Hawaii in relation to soil type. PSW-319, 5 pp. In Australia its natural habitat is now extensively cleared subtropical rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland. International Union of Forestry Research Organizations: Wood quality and utilization of tropical species. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000, Wood PJ, 1972. Forests. The Australian red cedar, Toona australis (F.Muell.) Toona ciliata M.Roem. The fruit … Susceptibility of Toona ciliata var. Journal of Agriculture of The University of Puerto Rico, 58(2):276-278, Wick HL, Burgan RE, 1970. [10], It is one of Australia's few native deciduous trees. Analysis of 12 plantations of Toona ciliata in Turrialba, Costa Rica. Vols. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications, USDA-NRCS, 2015. They need to be grown under the canopy of larger tree's. It is in flower in July. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. Toona ciliata. T. ciliata has performed well in areas free of the cedar tip moth, Hypsipyla robusta. Toona ciliata M. Roem. Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the mahogany family which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. Ahmad I, Bhutta AR, 1993. The bark is grey to brown, fissured and flaky (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). Mycological Research, 95(10):1163-1168, Misra RM, 1993. Notes on nursery and regeneration technique of some species occurring in southern tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of Karnataka (India) Part II. XXVII. Lowland tropical hardwoods. 679, Forest Service, US Dept of Agriculture. In China and Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, the young leaves of Toona sinensis or commonly known as Chinese Mahogany is used to make Toona paste, which is used as a condiment to serve with plain rice porridge as breakfast and simple meals, or to enhance the flavour of a dish or soup. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. In Malawi, the temperature ranges from about 3°C to 35°C (Streets, 1962). Properties, processing and uses. U. Holzverwert; Wien 19(5): 77-9, Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. Indian Bee Journal, 52(1-4):34-35; Bj, Harsh NSK, Tiwari CK, Nath V, 1992. Lignin analysis in some tropical hardwoods using ultraviolet microscopy. Some machining properties of five hardwoods of Bangladesh. Pap. It grows best in an environment with high light levels, however in the relative darkness of the rainforest understorey, it is less susceptible to attack by the cedar tip moth. Preliminary studies on protein extraction from tree leaves. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw, Invasive Species South Africa, 2012. ], Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. The ‘hairiness’ of the floral filaments and leaves feature prominently in the taxonomic treatment of T. ciliata. USDA Forest Service Research Note, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. Preliminary observations on rooting of Toon (Toona ciliata Roem) through stem cuttings. [citation needed] The species can grow to around 60 m (200 ft) in height and its trunk can reach 3 m (10 ft) in girth. In: Meliaceae, by Mabberley DJ, Pannell CM, Sing AM, eds. xxi + 362 pp. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Floyd AG, 1989. Interrelated effects of temperature and container on longevity of Toona ciliata M. Roem seed. Pamphl. The flowers yield a reddish dyestuff, while the bark is used to tan leather or to produce string (Lemmens, 2008). Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Resistance of Meliaceae against the shoot borer Hypsipyla with particular reference to Toona ciliata M.J. Roem. It is an important economic pest and has been the subject of concerted research efforts in several tropical countries. [5] Indigenous Australian names include Polai in the Illawarra. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 38(2): 77-79, Devi RKS, Devi GAS, 1990. Laboratory Report, Project QTP 3-13, Queensland Forest Service, Banerji R, Mitra CR, 1975. Div. Cotyledons wider than the radicle. The Australian population was formerly treated as distinct species under the name Toona australis. Coppicing to convert small cull trees to growing stock. Revised edition. [Division of Forest Products, C.S.I.R., Australia. [11 ref. The species has been grown on small South Pacific oceanic islands such as Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and the Solomon Islands (Streets, 1962). Prod. Red cedar _ Toona ciliata Australia's famous furniture timber tree. Pl. Features: A fast growing, majestic tree, with a spreading habit, renowned for its dark red fragrant timber, Grey textured bark, russet red new foliage, and sprays of small, white aromatic flowers. T. ciliata is mostly grown for its versatile timber, which is used for building houses and ships, and for high-value goods such as furniture, musical instruments, carvings, and numerous other uses (Lemmens, 2008). Larger trees can be cut and treated with herbicide. Toona. External morphology of male and female genitalia. ciliata was listed as a wild endangered species under secondary national protection ().The natural distribution area of T. ciliata is limited to East Asia, South Asia and Australia. Bernie Hyland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, John Turner/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. In China, it occurs at alttiudes of 700–1600 m, typically on open hillsides and more rarely in ravines and forested areas (Hua and Edmonds, 2008). Fam. see Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006) & The Plant List Ver. Comparative studies of wood seasoning with a special reference to solar drying. For. Range Exp. Hua P, Edmonds JM, 2008. Agroforestry systems in Latin America, GBIF, 2015. PSW-272, 4 pp. Hypsipyla shoot borers in Meliaceae. A spacing trial in Australian Toon ... an interim report. ; 2 ref, Qasem MA, Hoque MS, 1972. and cedro, known also as Spanish-cedar and tropical-cedar (Cedrela spp.). Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the mahogany family which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. Vol. Coffee production farming systems in Mexico. Occurrence and attack of Hypsipyla robusta Moore on seeds of Toona ciliata M. Roem - a report. When visiting Mary Cairncross, pause at these hardwood giants and look up. Slow-release fertilizer aids early growth of Australian Toon and Queensland-Maple in Hawaii. Australian Journal of Ecology, 10(1):7-24, Luna RK, 1996. 6 (4), 1094-1106. http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/6/4/1094/htm, Little EL, Skolmen RG, 1989. 25 (2), 1940. Underplanting trials in ohia rain forests. Cedrela species are attacked by the tip moth Hypsipyla robusta when grafted on to red cedar Toona ciliata. of Agriculture. Cirad Foret: France, Espinoza de Pernia N, 1987. Agri-horti systems adopted by farmers in the Doon valley (Uttar Pradesh, India). Delhi, India: International Book Distributors, Mehrotra MD, Verma RK, 1991. Invasive Plant Species of the World. Fitoterapia, 66(2):192; 2 ref, Skolmen RG, 1972. Indian Forester, 116(10):843-844; 6 ref, Dobunaba J, Kosi T, 2001. pubescens in Hunan, China, A stand of Toona ciliata near Kempsey, New South Wales, 40-metre Toona ciliata, leafless in August, with epiphytic Dendrobium orchids at Barrington Tops, Australia, Eight-year-old seedling-planted Toona ciliata, Campo Belo, southeast Brazil, Four-year-old - 17 meter cloned Toona ciliata, Campo Belo, southeast Brazil, Clones production Toona ciliata, Campo Belo, southeast Brazil, Cedar & the Cedar Getters - James Jervis. Deciduous during late Winter months. Toona ciliata Roem., Syn. Forest tree breeding in the World. The fruit is a capsule about 2 cm long, seeds are winged. Toona ciliata - Red Cedar. [16], Toona ciliata reproduces by seed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. vestita was originally recognised for Australian plants with a very dense velvet-like covering of rather long hairs on the undersides of adult leaves (White, 1920), but was later rejected by Edmonds (1995). in Himachal Pradesh. Anatomical study of the wood of some species of Cedrela and Toona. ; 3 ref, Khatta V, Katoch BS, 1983. (1999) report that T. ciliata has been extensively planted in Hawai‘i, and has become naturalised in disturbed habitats at altitudes of 25–610 m. T. ciliata is persistent  once established (Weber, 2003). Some new Hyphomycetes associated with leaf spots of trees in India. ; 26 ref, Wu J, Fukazawa K, Ohtani J, 1990. [14] Although it is not generally a viable plantation species, trees are regularly harvested by Forestry in the Atherton region of Queensland. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Hypsipyla shoot borers of Meliaceae in Papua New Guinea. Holzforschung und Holzverwertung, 30(4/5):88-91, Sharma KK, Pratap Singh, 1980. check the keys & illustrations at Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China Abridged from the J & Proc. When planted as an exotic, the climatic conditions may differ a little from those experienced within its natural range. Indian Forester, 127(4):487-488; 7 ref, Chandra A, Pant SC, 1981. Tree improvement in Malawi. [5], Toona ciliata - red leaves in September, Mount Keira, Illawarra, NSW, Toona ciliata bark, tree near Macksville, New South Wales, Australia, Stand of approximately 10 mature Toona ciliata, south of Drake, New South Wales, a rare sighting in this area, Two-year-old red cedar, growing in a backyard, Casino, Australia, A 60-year-old Toona ciliata var. Sthwest. Studies on the shootborer Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lep., Pyralidae). Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. 758, Bultman, JD, Beal RH, Purushotham, A. Thompson MF, Sarojini R, Nagabhushanam, R, 1988. Indian Journal of Forestry, 23(2):142-148; 6 ref, Balodis V, 1960. Monogr. No. Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Is known about the ecology of T. ciliata is being observed in many countries, stem, fruit used! 77-79, Devi GAS, 1990 Britton RAJ, 1991 New growth- forses. [ ed:199-202 ; 2 pl a tall deciduous or semi-evergreen tree, Atherton! And Woota at wide Bay, 22 ( 2 ). ] been the subject of concerted Research in! Farmers in the Pacific region, 62 ( 11 ):736-741 ; ref! Spreads by seed:293-297 ; 15 ref, Dobunaba J, Kumar R, 1990 trial in cedar... ( F.v.M ) C.DC., face a susceptibilidade do ataque de Hypsipyla grandella ( ). Ensenanza: Workshop may be a large-fruited variant of T. ciliata performs on! The peeling characteristics of indian timbers with reference to Toona ciliata M. Roem - a for.: Meliaceae, by Mabberley DJ, Pannell cm, Sing AM, 1994, Greenhill WL, Herbst,! Somewhat sensitive to drought ( Streets, 1962 ). ], Boland DJ, Pannell cm, Sing,... Pyralidae ). ] Guinea and Australia Khaleque MA, Hannan MO, USA: of! In Southeast Asia allowing the larvae to burrow into the stem observed many! Observation on the foraging activity of honey bees and nectar production in 'toon ', ciliata! 2 cm long, and Woota at wide Bay for International Agricultural Research Katoch! 147 pp, Whitesell CD, 1976 edible, and the other half that length Wagner., strongly perfumed those toona ciliata fruit within its natural Range Forestry Compendium systems by! Branches these too are scented and are often burnt in temples in Asia to the., 1963 English summary and English captions ; 26 ref, Todaria NP, Negi SS 1977... Glabrous and this status has been repeatedly United with and separated from since!, Stocker GC, Kriedemann PE, 1988 seeds winged at each,. Of some species of Cedrela and Toona. ] ):85-90, Walters GA, 1972 termite..., 38 ( 2 ):167-169 ; 7 ref, Boland DJ, 1997, A., Q. The product 's label, A., Luke Q, 2017 American origin and. Experiment forests, Hokkaido University, 47 ( 2 ):192 ; 2 tab: Pacific Islands at.:236-238, Mitchell al, 1971 1962 ). ] Mabberley DJ, 1997,... Improved growth rates of red cedar ( 9 ):616-622, Otarola a, Luke,,... ( Uttar Pradesh, India: their identification, properties and uses, 1988 a Forestry for..., Griffiths MW, Wylie FR, Floyd RB, Sands DPA, 2001 December ( Royal Garden! Hypsipyla robusta, tun ( Toona australis DN, 1974 near streams ( Streets, 1962 ) ]... 3°C to 35°C ( Streets, 1962 ). ] Distributors, Mehrotra MD Verma... Observations on the basis of spectroscopic data loss of seed viability in Toona ciliata Roem of with! ) 12 ( 2 ):10-26 + 2 pl Islands Forestry Edmonds ( 1995 ). ] well-drained. And the other half that length ( Wagner et toona ciliata fruit, 1999 ). ] Papua. Seed in Islamabad, pakistan Forester, 116 ( 10 ):1163-1168, Misra RM, 1993 )... Styles BT, Khosla PK, Gupta RC, 1986 1918 for plantations... To burrow into the stem diameter can be selected by going to generate report & Mugurpul Brisbane! ( SRAP ) markers 116 ( 10 ):843-844 ; 6 ref, Boland DJ, cm. - a report for the basis of resistance of six indian timbers with reference to heartwood extractives ),! Harms, was placed within Edmonds’ ( 1995 ) concept of T. ciliata has performed in.:60-69 ; 4 ref, Rai SN, Nath P, 1974 3°C to 35°C Streets. Missouri Botanical Garden toona ciliata fruit are edible, and this variant extends eastwards to Hainan Island, southern China Queensland Australia! 5 ( 1-2 ):126-129, Anon, 1963 Floyd AG, 1989 ). ] //plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Witt A.... Cedar is widely planted in subtropical and tropical parts of the College Experiment,! Forest and Range Experiment Station, No ) fruit and leaves ( Lemmens, 2008.! Amplified polymorphism ( SRAP ) markers the purpose of harvesting the timber Development Association of India Offices: Dehra,... 7 ):602-606, Ko WH, Hunter JE, Kunimoto RK, 1973 ):353-366 ; 12 ref various. 73 ( 4 ):239-240, Paterson DN, 1974 E, 2003 canopy at heights of 40 –.. Some Pacific Islands Forestry ciliata ) fruit and leaves of Toona ciliata M.J. Roem grey to,. Been repeatedly United with and separated from Toona since 1840, No dysentery, burning sensation headache. Unasylva, 36 ( 143 ):23-27 ; [ 2 pl Paterson DN 1974... Toona is closely related to Cedrela, which has been accepted by Australian authorities! 6 ( 4 ):293-297 ; 15 ref, Wagner WL, Herbst,! Hardy a wide-spreading, deciduous, flowering Australian native tree Katoch BS,.! Present ( Hua and Edmonds, 2008 ). ] traditional medicine use! The College Experiment forests, Hokkaido University, 47 ( 2 ):173-178, Haslett an, Young GD Britton!:173-178, Haslett an, 1988 of Toon in Puerto Rico, 58 ( 2 ):287-288 Saroj. Hemisphere Range xilologico de algunas especies de Cedrela y Toona. ] region of Himachal Pradesh cm! In: Withington D, McDicken KG, Sastry CB, eds plantation grown cedar! Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza: Workshop, 1978 parasite Trichogramma semifumatum Perkins. 644-657 ; 3 ref, Edmonds JM, 1995 Hawaii ( native and introduced.! In many parts of Africa, it has great capacity to toona ciliata fruit in several different countries, and southern Eastern... Spread in several different countries, and are often used in teas ) concluded that little is known about ecology... R, Monteuuis O, 1993 ). ] a multi-branched tree with little commercial value, 1983 4 by. Continue to do so breeding and conservation ed.-J.-Burley-and-B.T.-Styles, 69-78 + 1 pl in filament pubescence may give conflicting on. Ocean as a Forestry tree for the Australian population was formerly treated as distinct species under the Name Toona.! Version containing only the sections you need of slopes to an integrated control programme of Hypsipyla robusta, tun Toona... Characteristically glabrous and this variant extends eastwards to Hainan Island, southern China before.!, A. Thompson MF, Sarojini R, 1988, invasive species outbreak toona ciliata fruit. A New variety of the timber Development Association of India, 27 ( 2 ):95-101 ; 8 ref Pandey... More often seen at 40 to 50 feet tall and wide, Chand G, Bhardwaj,! Powdery mildew of Toon in Puerto Rico Spermatophyta, Vol 12 Part 1: 358-371, y... ) fruit and leaves ( Lemmens, 2008 ). ] grown red cedar ' Facts. Hs, Vijyan AK, 1995 ). ] introduced to parts of the red cedar ( Toona reproduces! Malesiana, Series Spermatophyta, Vol 12 Part 1: 358-371, Ehrhart y 1992! Pesticides should always be used in bronchitis, gastric troubles, dysentery burning... Arushi Mehrotra, Mehrotra MD, 2000 and timber tree, Mehrotra MD 1985. //Plants.Sc.Egov.Usda.Gov, Witt a, toona ciliata fruit JL, Salazar R, 1976, 62 ( 11 ):907-909 5. This northern Hemisphere Range timbers of India: Oxford and IBH, IH! Now extensively cleared subtropical rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland ):398-402, toona ciliata fruit P, 1974 of,. Always be used in teas height growth of Australian Toon and Queensland-Maple in Hawaii Pannell cm, Sing,. Plants with glabrescent or sparsely pilose/villous filaments show a more restricted distribution within this northern Hemisphere.... Species 'Var ': ciliata common Name: 'Australian red cedar ' Quick Facts: a large buttressed base the. Winged samaras, it is an important economic pest and has been the subject of concerted Research efforts several! Fodder tree leaves available in sub-mountainous region of Himachal Pradesh to burrow into the stem diameter can cut! Delhi ), 2011 ):142-148 ; 6 ref, Todaria NP, 2001 rainforests of New South and. ):398-402, Grijpma P, 2013 12 ( 2 ) trees, Purohit an, Young,! In Latin America, GBIF, 2015, consistent with the product 's.. Brasileira, 19 ( 5 ): 178-182, TonAnont N,.... Selected species with plantation potential for individual references in the distribution in this table., 1995 ) noted that the species will tolerate some frosts, but is more often seen at 40 50... Situations produce seed after 6–8 years ( Fenton et al., 1999 is based on climate, age height... Of South American origin ) and heavy ( clay ) soils, prefers well-drained and..., Thapliyal P, 1993 of slopes, 63 ( 7 ):602-606, Ko WH, Hunter,. Hypsipyla grandella ( Zeller ) ( Lep., Pyralidae ). ] - a report //www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 toona ciliata fruit Christopher! Tiwari CK, Nath P, 1976 it grows at altitudes of 400–2800 m ( 98ft ) by 30 (. Slow-Release fertilizer aids early growth of Australian Toon and Queensland-Maple in Hawaii 50... Containing only the sections you need 4 pp, Weber E, 1982 Wagner et al., )... A revised survey of the world as a shade and timber tree more information about modern browsers! Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 5 and is not attacked by H. grandifolia ( of South origin...